As Iran and members of P5+1 move closer in signing a nuclear accord with Iran, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is paramount in monitoring and verifying Iran’s commitments and obligations. According this analysis, “the fact sheet released by the US State Department regarding the Plan of Action places the agency squarely in charge of verification, calling for the agency to, inter alia: have access to both declared and undeclared facilities through Iran’s implementation of an Additional Protocol; provide “continuous” monitoring of the removal and storage of centrifuges; investigate suspicious sites or allegations of covert facilities anywhere in the country; and continue its investigation into the possible military dimensions of Iran’s nuclear program…..The agency is the only international, technical organization capable of this kind of nuclear stock-taking and verification, and it possesses experience in dealing with extraordinary situations—witness its roles in South Africa and Iraq.”
Once Iran and P5+1 signed the interim nuclear agreement, IAEA’s reports have become more hopeful, stating that Iran is in compliance with NPT and the Safeguard Agreements.
Kelsey Davenport provides an excellent analysis of the latest cooperation agreement between Iran and IAEA. They “broke important new ground on Sunday, with an agreement that will finally allow the agency to begin its investigations into Iran’s past nuclear activities with possible military dimensions. Satisfactory resolution of these issues will help demonstrate to the international community that Iran’s nuclear program is peaceful and that the country is not pursuing nuclear weapons.”
According to an article by Kelsey Davenport, Daryl G. Kimball, and Greg Thielmann that analyze the latest IAEA report on Iran, Rouhani’s government “has made a political decision to pause the expansion of its enrichment capabilities.” This is a stunning report by IAEA, it confirms the reports that Rouhani’s government intends to negotiate a deal with P5+1 group, and the new IAEA report reflects the emerging new political environment inside Iran. As stated in the conclusion of their article, “recent progress on increasing monitoring and transparency through IAEA agreements and Iran’s proposal during talks with the P5+1 suggests that Tehran is willing to seriously consider a pause in its nuclear program development while negotiating an ultimate agreement on program limits in exchange for sanctions relief.”